More of the basics in the cosmological argument series. It’s worth your time to study on Leibniz, a philosopher that was ahead of his time. Conceptually the cosmological and ontological mix it up here.

Offered by Samuel Clarke

1) There are dependent beings.
2) For any dependent being, it either depends on itself, or it depends on
another.
3) Nothing can depend on itself.
4) So, all dependent beings depend on another. (1, 2)
5) The series of beings which depend on another can’t be infinite.
6) If the series of beings which depend on another can’t be infinite, then the
series of beings which depend on another must ultimately depend on an
independent being.
7) The beings which depend on another must ultimately depend
on an independent being. (5, 6)

● Clarke, A Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God.
● William Rowe, The Cosmological Argument (Princeton, 1975)
● Richard Gale, On the Nature and Existence of God (Cambridge, 1991), pp. 244ff.
● Bruce Reichenbach, The Cosmological argument: A Reassessment (Charles C. Thomas, 1972).

Leibniz’s Sufficient Reason

1) Anything that exists has a sufficient reason for why it exists, either in
another contingent being or in a necessary being.
2) The world exists.
3) Therefore, the world has a sufficient reason for why it exists, either in
another contingent being or in a necessary being.
4) But the sufficient reason for why the world exists cannot be in another
contingent being, since (a) the world just is the collection of all
contingent beings, and (b) the sufficient reason for the collection
cannot be in its parts, individually or collectively.
5) So, a sufficient reason for the world must be in a necessary being
outside the world.
6) Therefore, there is a necessary being outside the world

Davis-Craig Leibnizian Explanation

1) Everything that exists has an explanation.
2) The universe exists.
3) So, the universe has an explanation.
4) If the universe has an explanation its
explanation is God.
5) So, God exists.

● Stephen T. Davis, “The Cosmological Argument and the
Epistemic Status of Belief in God,” Philosophia Christi 1/1
(1999), 5-16.
● William Lane Craig, Reasonable Faith (Crossway, 2008), pp.
106-111.

See also: The Sufficiency of Scripture and Logical Proof